The idea of the 248 Limbs was explained to me in this way:

All souls are included in Adam and divide into many roots...

All souls are included in Adam and divide into many roots, as follows. In the beginning, they divide into the three forefathers, after that into the twelve tribes, and then into the seventy souls. After that up to 600,000 small roots - all of which are included in Adam.

Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato explains that after the original sin, the privilege of starting the nation that would be responsible for the rectification process was up for grabs. There were previous tzadikim, but only Abraham took full responsibility and accepted this yoke upon him and his children. (Derech Hashem)

"We do not call anyone 'patriarchs' except for three." (Baba Basra) Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the founding fathers, all operated out of the highest world Atzilut. (Root and Spark Dynamics) Jacob, the culmination of their efforts, is "the choice of the patriarchs" (Zohar) and completely fixed the original sin - on the level of Atzilut.

The next step in the rectification process was to draw the efforts of the patriarchs a rung down into Beriya. This was the task of Jacob's children, the twelve tribes.

The following step was to expand the tikun of the tribes to the seven lower sefirot of Yetzira. This was the job of the seventy souls (Gen. 46:27) that the tribal clans branched out into.

The succeeding rung was to draw everything into the lowest of worlds - Asiya. The seventy exploded into 600,000 souls, who took this task. They started in Egypt. By the time they stood at Mt. Sinai to receive the Torah they were perfect. (Shabbat)

The sin of the golden calf disturbed the whole tikun.

The sin of the golden calf disturbed the whole tikun. The 600,000 come back repeatedly to fix it, little by little in each generation.

The right shoulder of Adam divides as said, first into three forefathers, then into twelve tribes, and after that into seventy souls. Each of the seventy small roots is an individual root from the grand roots of Adam. However, there are only seventy small roots in him, and all of them together are the partzuf of a single person. After this, the seventy roots divide up to 600,000 soul-sparks; they are not called roots but sparks.

Each of the seventy small roots of the right shoulder we are discussing has one complete partzuf, and all of the 600,000 sparks of this right shoulder are one large root of Adam, called after Abel, the son of Adam. It is the same with the left shoulder of Adam. Three forefathers divide into twelve tribes, and then into seventy souls, which are called the seventy small roots. These seventy roots also divide into 600,000 sparks which are not called roots. Each of these seventy roots is a complete partzuf, and all of them are called the root of Cain, son of Adam.

From one of these seventy roots came Rabbi Akiva, Akavia ben Mehalelel, and King Hezekiah, as mentioned previously. This root divides into more than 613 sparks, all of which make up one complete partzuf, and from the partzuf of this root comes King Hezekiah, Rabbi Akiva, and Akavia ben Mahalelel. However, King Hezekiah is from the head of this partzuf, and Akiva and Akavia ben Mahalelel are from the heel of this partzuf.

Coming from the head, he is king. 'Akiva', like Jacob, suggests 'akev' - the heel.

Jacob comes from the heel and thereby infiltrates and subjugates Esau...

The source of all this is found by what G‑d said to the snake, "He (man) shall smite you on the head, and you shall smite him on the heel." (Gen. 3:15) "And his (Jacob's) hand holds on to the heel of Esau." (ibid 25:26) Jacob comes from the heel and thereby infiltrates and subjugates Esau/the snake on his own territory. Rabbi Akiva continued this dynamic; therefore he was born of converts, Just as Jacob's outstanding quality is Torah.1 It empowers to subdue all negative forces.

In the humble opinion of Chaim, based upon what we are now saying and what was said in the previous discussion, we find that this root mentioned is on the level of the heel of the general shoulder, which is one of the seventy roots of Cain. The head of the heel is Hezekiah, and the end of this heel2, that is the heel of the heel, is Rabbi Akiva and Akavia.

However, in the previous discussion we explained that the souls included in Adam divide into 613 large roots, and after that into 600,000 small roots. Here, we are explaining that it occurs in another way, that they are three forefathers that divide into Twelve Tribes, and then Seventy Souls only, and after that into 600,000 small roots?

However, if we look closely, we will see that it results in the same conclusion, and you will see how the TRYG/taryag/613 mitzvahs divide into 600,000.

For the letters TR from TRYG/taryag [equal 600 and can be rendered] 'TR ribuy'’ [sixty myriads]. The letter "yud" [hints to] the level of the seventy souls because the six extremities correspond to the sixty myriads, as is known.

If you add Y/ten to sixty, you arrive at the number seventy - that is the seventy souls. The letters YG/13 are the twelve tribes, with one extra that unifies them. This is how TaRYaG includes all the parts.

The wisdom of gematria [kabalistic numerology] teaches that after the calculation of the value of a word, one extra can always be added. It represents the surrounding energy that encompasses the specific energies of the totality.

The idea here is that taryag, the amount of God-given commandments, (Makot 23b) is a universal concept that encompasses all of the souls - and accordingly all of existence, which is made for the souls.

Returning to the topic of Cain and Abel: The two 'crowns' are the crown of chesed and the crown of gevura, which are hidden within Abba and Imma. Adam and Eve are Abba and Imma, and so Abel is the crown of chesed while Cain is the crown of gevura.

My teacher also organized the soul-roots for me in another way: We already explained that a person has a nefesh from Asiya, a ruach from Yetzira, a neshama from Beriya, a nefesh from Nukva of Atzilut, a ruach from Zeir Anpin of Atzilut, a neshama from Bina of Atzilut, the 'soul of the soul' called chaya from Abba of Atzilut, and yechida from keter, which is called Arich Anpin of Atzilut.

Every root from the roots of the soul has a portion of these levels. However, this is how the division of the soul-roots takes place: To begin with they divide into five roots, Arich Anpin, Abba and Imma, Zeir Anpin and Nukvah. When the world was created, these five roots divided into zehira ila’a of Adam, which Enoch later merited - this is the level of Arich Anpin. Adam also took the level of Abba, and Eve, that of Imma. Abel received Zeir Anpin, and Cain the Nukvah. would have been preferable that Abel, who is Zeir Anpin, be born before Cain, who is Nukvah.

Therefore, it would have been preferable that Abel, who is Zeir Anpin, be born before Cain, who is Nukvah. However, when Adam sinned, he caused the intermingling of good and evil, causing a defect, the result of which was Cain being born before Abel. This is explained in Sha’ar Hapsukim [The Gate of Verses] on the verse, "And Adam knew Eve his wife." (Gen. 4:1) Look over there.

All the rest of the souls of the world that are born from these five roots are in the world of Atzilut. The rest of the souls, however, are born from the five roots of BY"A, for in each world there are five roots. All of them are secondary to the roots of Atzilut, follow after them, and are included in them, in the same way that all the souls of the world are rooted in these five roots. Each root divides into ten sefirot, resulting in fifty roots in each world. The fifty that are in Atzilut are the root of everything. These fifty roots divide even further, which we will explain elsewhere.

Every root from the roots of the souls include one complete partzuf composed of 248 limbs and 365 tendons, which incorporate 613 [sparks], though combined they are a complete partzuf of one soul with all its parts, a single root. However, specifically they are 613 sparks, which are Torah scholars.

There are also many sparks in every root that are amei ha’aretz [ignoramuses], who work in the dwelling places of the world. For every root is like a tree that produces fruit, which are the scholars, and leaves, branches, wood, peels, etc., which are the amei ha’aretz.

[Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]