All the neshamot, ruchot, and nefashot of all that was created in this world are included in and dependent upon Adam. This is because Adam incorporated all five parts mentioned above: NRNCh"Y which come from the five partzufim and ten sefirot called [from top to bottom]: Arich Anpin, Abba and Imma, Zu"N. We will explain the level called nefesh, and from this discussion you will be able to extrapolate to the ruach and neshama, etc.

...the nefesh of a person has 613 roots.

The nefesh of Adam is comprised of 248 limbs and 365 tendons - a total of 613. Thus, the nefesh of a person has 613 roots. However, every limb from the 248 limbs and every tendon from the 365 tendons consists of one complete partzuf, which is also made up of 613 limbs and tendons. Every limb and tendon is called one large and complete root.

Sometimes, as a result of sins and defects, the 613 grand roots will sub-divide into 600,000 small roots, which are also actual roots, except that they are smaller. However, there cannot be more than 600,000 mini-roots since there are no more than 600,000 gilgulim, as is mentioned in Tikun 69.

It is the same for every limb and tendon of Adam that is called a large root, that they divide into 613 soul-sparks called grand sparks, and that each one is a root. Moreover, sometimes, as a result of a defect, they sub-divide into 600,000 mini-sparks, as did the 613 grand roots - but not less than this. However, it is possible to divide up until 600,000 min-roots - but not more.

It is the same for every root of the 613 large ones, that they have in them 613 grand sparks, and no less, and that they can divide until 600,000 mini-sparks, and no more. However, more than 613 and less than 600,000 is possible, such as 10,000 or similar, but only up until 600,000.

This is the root of the teaching that there are 600,000 souls. (Zohar Chadash, Songs 74) They connect with the 613 commandments of the Torah - actually they are sub-divisions of them. This is one way of understanding the teaching of the Zohar that the souls and the Torah are one.

The world was made through the six sefirot of Zeir Anpin.

The world was created for the souls. Accordingly, the way things are set up in the world is a reflection of the way things are for the souls. There are six directions to the world. There are six primary soul roots. The world was made through the six sefirot of Zeir Anpin. (Zohar, intro.) From this come the six directions in space, and six days in time.

Six hundred thousand is the standard size of a generation (Above 17:1) as we find by the generation of the wilderness, (Num. 2:32) who were the first generation of the Jews as a people. They are the general, primary expression of Zeir Anpin in the world.

It is a higher level for the sparks to remain at the grand rung of 613, for they are so less fragmented and more energized.

This applies to the nefesh - it is the same for ruach and neshama, that it is possible to divide up to 1,000, or 2,000, etc.

[Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]