On that day [of Shabbat] King's children must prepare three meals and set the table in honor of the King [i.e. Shabbat], as we explained. 1 When a feast [one of the 3 Festivals] falls on it or a holiday [i.e. Rosh Hashanah] one must not set two tables at each meal, one for Shabbat and one for the guest [i.e. the Festival], since it is written, "for he did eat continually at the king's table." (II Samuel 9:13) For the King's table suffices to the coming guest. [There is enough light and delight at the Shabbat table also for the coming Festival.] Hence one should set a whole table for the King, from which he gives to the guest. [Shabbat gives enough flow also for the Festival and the Festival guest will take from it.]

Rabbi Elazar said, When a guest
[a Festival] falls after Shabbat's third meal [on Saturday night], should the third meal be omitted [in honor of the Festival meal that will be after nightfall] or not? If one eats the third meal, the guest is rejected from the King's table [for after eating the Third Meal, one will not have an appetite for the evening meal of the Festival]. However, if it is neglected there is something lacking in the King's meals.

Rabbi Shimon his father said to him, a king had a guest come to visit. He took his own food and gave to the guest. Thus, although the king does not eat together with him, the latter eats of the king's victuals, and the king gives him food . All that is because it is the King's guest.
[Thus, when there is a Festival meal on Saturday night, that Festival day is a guest of the King Shabbat, and thus Shabbat gives its third meal to the Festival.]

In the house of Rav Hamnuna Saba they were not concerned about the guest at that time. [They did not take into consideration the import of the Festival's evening meal which fell on Saturday night, and they would eat the 3rd meal of Shabbat as usual.] Later they would prepare a meal for the guest. [They would make a festive evening meal even if they were satiated from eating the third meal of Shabbat.]

On that day speech is restricted, as in, "nor pursuing your own business, nor speaking of vain matters." (Isaiah 58:13) We learned that one's speech on Shabbat shouldn’t be like his weekday speech. (Shabbat 133a) It says: "your own business" – but Heavenly matters are permitted. For all of faith is connected to that day [of Shabbat].

BeRahamim LeHayyim: Why did the Ari and Chida include this section? What do they want us to learn?

Some years, we celebrate Sukkot and Shemini Atzeret on Shabbat. So what should one do when it is time to eat the Third Meal? We are commanded not to eat late in the day so as to honor the Festival meal that would be held on Saturday night after Shabbat.

There are numerous varying opinions of what to do in such a case. Some say that Torah study at the time of the Third meal is a replacement for food, as the Magen Avrohom mentions that R’ Shimon ben Yochai fulfilled his obligation of the third meal on Shabbos through the study of Torah. Kaf HaHayyim limits the practical application of this principle and rules that it may only be employed by those who are on a spiritual level akin to R’ Shimon ben Yochai, but for us regular folks, the third Shabbos meal should usually consist of actual food.

The Rama (Rabbi Moshe Isserles of Cracow, Poland, 1525-1572) mentions that in such a case, one should eat the Third Meal before the ninth hour of the day. The Mishna Berura (Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) adds, however, that if a person did not eat the Third Meal before the ninth hour, he should nevertheless eat the meal at that point.

What a beautiful sensitive religion we have! We are even concerned about the "feelings and honor" of a Holiday. Will the Guest Holiday be insulted if we don't eat a lot at its special meal? This anthropomorphism is mind-blowing! Sure we've learned how Shabbat is a Bride and Queen, but to relate the Holy days together like this amazes me.

What does this mean for your Sukkot, and why is it being revealed now?

Bracketed annotations from Metok Midevash and Sulam commentaries
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